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Bible Study: Luke, Chapter Twenty-Two

  • RHM Bible Study, Luke Chapter Twenty-Two, Part One from Refreshing Hope Ministries on Vimeo.


    Special Note: The study for Luke Chapter 22 is divided into two parts, because of the length, with two videos. Please scroll down after the first half two see the second video or read the text. The full quiz is at the very bottom or on this page.


    Transcript: Today we are going to continue our Bible study and we will be studying the first half of Luke Chapter 22 in depth. I have decided to split this chapter into two parts because of the depth of the content. I saw that my teaching was over an hour long by the time I had gotten to verse 35, so I decided to spare you the pain and divide it into shorter teachings. You can follow along in your own Bible if you like. I will be reading from the World English Bible because it is copyright free. This week’s quiz has ten questions instead of twenty, because it is half a chapter. Let’s get started:

    First, let’s set our location and when. Jesus and the disciples are at Jerusalem. He rode into town on a donkey’s colt, on what is called Palm Sunday. He has been teaching in the temple during the day, and spending the nights on the Mount of Olives. 

    According to Mark 11:11, they may have stayed at Bethany, a small, quiet hamlet on the eastern side of the Mount of Olives, about a mile-and-a-half from Jerusalem. This is where Mary, Martha, and Lazarus lived. 

    Three times a year all Israelite men were to appear before the Lord:

    Deuteronomy 16:16 NKJV “Three times a year all your males shall appear before the LORD your God in the place which He chooses: at the Feast of Unleavened Bread, at the Feast of Weeks, and at the Feast of Tabernacles; and they shall not appear before the LORD empty-handed.” 

    These events were called Passover, Pentecost, and Tabernacles, the three great national festivals of Israel (Lev 23:4–8, 15–22, 33–43; Num 28:16–30; 29:12–39; Deut 16:1–17). The passover feast in the year 2018 will be from March 30 through April 7, so this chapter would have happened during the springtime. Three times a year, Israelite men were to appear before the Lord, and they were not to come empty-handed. This was one of those times: the Passover feast. 

    Many of the followers of Jesus were crowded into Jerusalem expecting Him to come as the Messiah. The priests and religious leaders were upset because Jesus was rocking their boat and making them look bad. Jesus healed people and raised the dead, while the Pharisees glared in envy and plotted ways to kill Him, but they were afraid of the people. They were OK with framing and killing the Son of God, as long as they could keep up the appearance of being holy. That is where this chapter begins.

    Luke Chapter 22 beginning in verse 1, reading from the World English Bible: Now the feast of unleavened bread, which is called the Passover, was approaching. 

    The Feast of Unleavened Bread and the Passover used to be two holidays. The Passover was observed on the 14th day of Nisan (April 1), and the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which celebrated the beginning of harvest, was observed the following week, 15–21. These eventually became combined into Passover week.

    2 The chief priests and the scribes sought how they might put him to death, for they feared the people. 

    That an amazing statement. The highest priests in a religion that God had established, now sought for ways to throw Him out of the house built in His name, kill Him, and keep it all for themselves, just as in the parable of the vineyard keepers. These were highly religious men in long flowing robes. They looked so holy on the outside, but inside they seethed with hatred and anger, seeking for a way to deal with Jesus once and for all. They knew that soon several hundred thousand pilgrims would descend on Jerusalem at Passover, and something had to be done quickly, or Jesus would have the potential of influencing hundreds of thousands.

    The conspiracy against Jesus is noted in all four Gospels, with John providing the fullest account and Luke the briefest (Luke 22:1–2; John 11:45–52). John noted the insecurity of the Jewish religious leaders who discussed Jesus in the Sanhedrin and said: “If we allow him to go on like this, soon everyone will believe in him. Then the Roman army will come and destroy both our Temple and our nation” (John 11:48).  Matthew 26:3 tells us that the plot to arrest Jesus began at the residence of Caiaphas, the high priest. Jesus came to His own people, they took a vote on it, and rejected Him. 

    About this time, Matthew 26:6 tells us that Jesus was in Bethany at the house of Simon the leper, and Mary of Bethany came with an alabaster flask of very costly fragrant oil. She began to anoint Jesus and Judas complained about wasting the expensive oil. When Jesus rebuked the disciples, Judas soon went to betray Him to the chief priests.  

    3 Satan entered into Judas, who was also called Iscariot, who was counted with the twelve. 4 He went away, and talked with the chief priests and captains about how he might deliver him to them. 5 They were glad, and agreed to give him money. 6 He consented, and sought an opportunity to deliver him to them in the absence of the multitude. 

    Jesus chose Judas Iscariot as one of the twelve apostles after spending all night in prayer in Luke 6:12. John 6:64 tells us that Jesus knew that Judas would betray Him from the beginning, even before He chose him as an apostle. The name Judas is the Greek equivalent of “Judah” while Iscariot is thought to mean: “man of Kerioth,” which was a town in Judea. If this is correct, then Judas would be the only Judean, while all the other apostles came from Galilee. This could have made him an outsider among them. In all the lists of the apostles, Judas Iscariot is always mentioned last, along with a note of his betrayal of Jesus (6:12–16; Matt 10:1–4; Mark 3:13–19). 

    In Luke 4:13 satan had left Jesus until a more “opportune time”, now he had found a way in Judas to get his foot in the door. Judas became a host for satan himself (John 13:27) who entered into him like Judas was an open house. Our body is a container, and it has spirits inside. One of these spirits is ours, hopefully another one is the Holy Spirit who guards the door, but just as the “legion” in Luke 8:30, you can have many, many more. If you have enough of the Holy Spirit inside of you, the others will eventually want to leave. 

    Luke’s statement that “Satan entered Judas” does not suggest demon possession, but rather influence. The same idea was clearly stated by Peter to Ananias, the husband of Sapphira when he said: “Ananias, how is it that Satan has so filled your heart that you have lied to the Holy Spirit?” (Acts 5:3). Ananias was under the influence of Satan.

    There are a few views on why Judas betrayed Jesus, but I believe that he simply did it for the money. Judas loved money. According to John 12:6, Judas, the keeper of the money bag, was a thief and helped himself to what was put into it. Judas became upset about the expensive ointment that was used to anoint Jesus, saying that it was wasted (Matt. 26:8, 26:14) and he betrayed Jesus immediately after the ointment incident.

    In Matthew 26:15, Judas asked the chief priests: “How much will you pay me to betray Jesus to you?” Mark 4:11 tells us that when the priests received the offer of assistance, they were “delighted” and they promised to pay Judas money. Matthew tells us that they paid Judas “thirty pieces of silver” which was roughly a month’s wages at the time. That amount is from Zechariah 11:12, where the prophet portrays a good shepherd who is rejected by his sheep, and sold for thirty pieces of silver. It was also the price of a slave in the Old Testament (Exodus 21:32). 

    Some believe that Judas may have followed Jesus expecting to receive a position of great status and prestige when Jesus came to Jerusalem as the Messiah. The Apostles thought they were going to rule with Him in His kingdom. But when Jesus came, it was evident that He  was not going to be the Messiah Judas hoped for, so he may have betrayed Jesus out of spite. In essence, Judas may have said, “You betrayed me by not giving me the position I wanted. So I will betray you.”

    Others have thought that Judas may have wanted to push Jesus into action and make His kingdom come quicker. Perhaps He thought (like the rest of the disciples) that Jesus was going to set up an earthly kingdom and overthrow the Roman invaders, and that this would push Jesus’ hand. These views are only speculation, and there is no foundation for this in scripture, or any favorable views of the behavior of Judas. It was probably for the money. Judas was an insider and he knew Jesus’ comings and goings, where He taught, where He prayed, where He slept. This would be an easy task for him. 

    What we do know is that Jesus said in Matthew 26:24, that it would have been better for Judas if he had not been born. Though satan thought this was a golden opportunity, Paul tells us in 1 Corinthians 2:8 that if satan would have known what was coming, they would have never crucified Jesus. That means that satan is not all knowing. He is just a created being and cannot see what is coming tomorrow (Ezekiel 28:13). Fortune tellers merely tell you what satan would like to happen in your life, then his demons work to bring that to pass, so stay away from them. In contrast, our Heavenly Father is all knowing and according to Isaiah 46:10 He can see the end, from the beginning. 

    7 The day of unleavened bread came, on which the Passover must be sacrificed. 8 Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, “Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat.”

    The Passover was a celebration of God delivering the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt as outlined in Exodus chapter 12. It was to be shared with 10 to 20 others. It began in the afternoon and was observed in a home or room reserved for the occasion. They roasted a lamb or a goat over a pomegranate spit. The company dressed in festive white and reclined at tables with the leader at the head.

    In Jesus’ time the celebration had grown beyond the Old Testament’s guidelines. There was a a set order to the service. The participants reclined while they ate because they were no longer slaves. It was the host’s duty to interpret each of the foods on the table as it related to their deliverance from Egypt. The bitter herbs recalled their bitter slavery. The stewed fruit, by its color and consistency, recalled the misery of making bricks for Pharaoh. The roasted lamb brought to their remembrance the lamb’s blood applied to the doorposts, their eating of the lamb within their house, and the death angel’s passing over them as it destroyed the firstborn of Egypt.

    9 They said to him, “Where do you want us to prepare?” 10 He said to them, “Behold, when you have entered into the city, a man carrying a pitcher of water will meet you. Follow him into the house which he enters. 11  Tell the master of the house, ‘The Teacher says to you, “Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?” ’ 12  He will show you a large, furnished upper room. Make preparations there.”

    Jesus knew that Judas was planning to betray Him betray him at a time when He and the disciples were isolated. If Judas had known the location of the Last Supper, that would have been an perfect time to have Him arrested, so none of them knew where it would be until Jesus told them. Jesus sent Peter and John, two of His most trusted followers on ahead and told them that when they entered the city, they would find a man carrying a pitcher of water. That would have been a rare sight because women carried the pitchers, while men carried water in skins. The city could have been the outskirts of Jerusalem or Bethany. Scripture does not tell us exactly where the Last Supper was located. 

    13 They went, found things as Jesus had told them, and they prepared the Passover. 

    Everything worked out perfectly. The apostles left and found things just as Jesus had told them, so they prepared the Passover meal. The man of the house led them to a large room above his home “all furnished”, indicating that the couches were arranged and covered for the meal. Jesus’ two most trusted disciples hurried off to purchase a lamb and all the trimmings for the feast, went to the temple for the sacrifice, carried the lamb back to the house, presented the skin to the owner, put the lamb roast on, lit the candles, and waited for Jesus and the others to arrive.

    14 When the hour had come, he sat down with the twelve apostles. 15 He said to them, “I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer, 16  for I tell you, I will no longer by any means eat of it until it is fulfilled in God’s Kingdom.” 

    The fullest account of the last supper occurs in John 13, but the account in Luke is longer than Matthew and Mark. While Peter and John sat waiting in the candlelight, hungry because of the aroma of the roasting lamb, Jesus and the rest arrived resplendent in white and took their places on the triclinium, couches which were arranged in a horseshoe around the table.

    The Last Supper probably resembled a setting like this rather than the western style of table and chairs that is common today. This was the last time that Jesus would eat with His disciples on the earth, and He had some very important things to say. 

    17 He received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, “Take this, and share it among yourselves, 18  for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until God’s Kingdom comes.”

    The last supper was not the beginning of the end, but the beginning of the New Covenant. The disciples shared the wine together, drinking from the same cup. It was a table of fellowship with one another: communion. 

    19 He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke, and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me.” 

    The unleavened bread at the Passover meal was equated with bread of affliction because it reminded them of their persecution in Egypt, as mentioned in Deuteronomy 16:3. Jesus broke the bread, handed it to them and said “This is My body which is given for you.” The bread represented Jesus’ body, and the affliction that he would soon endure on the cross. 

    “This is my body” to me means that the bread represents His body. Jesus was not saying that the bread was literally his body. His disciples understood that Jesus was speaking figuratively, just as when he said “the field is the world” or “I am the door” or “I am the Vine.” To His listeners who saw Him sitting there in His body holding a piece of bread in hand, “This is my body” could not mean anything other than “This broken bread is a symbol of My body.” They knew He was speaking figuratively.

    “Given for you” speaks of the gift of Him dying on the cross for our sins, as in (1 Corinthians 15:3) “Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures”.

    “Do this in remembrance of me” means that when we partake of the bread and cup in communion, that we are saying “Lord, I remember what You have done for us.” We may think it is impossible, but we are in constant danger of forgetting what Jesus did. Anytime we are looking at ourselves for the answer, we have forgotten Him. 

    20 Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you.” 

    Luke now skips ahead somewhat and says ”after supper” Jesus took a cup of wine and shared it with them. In Exodus 24:8, Moses read the commandments, the people agreed to live by them, and then he sprinkled everything with blood from a sacrifice. This was the beginning of the Old Covenant between God and man. Of course, the people did not keep His commandments and lots of bad things happened. Why the blood? First, to emphasize the seriousness of sin. Second, to teach that the payment for sin is death. Jesus brought a new covenant between God and man and He used His own blood to seal it. This was prophesied by Jeremiah:

    Jeremiah 31:31–34 (NKJV) — 31 “Behold, the days are coming, says the LORD, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah—32 not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, though I was a husband to them, says the LORD. 33 But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the LORD: I will put My law in their minds, and write it on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. 34 No more shall every man teach his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, ‘Know the LORD,’ for they all shall know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them, says the LORD. For I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more.”

    This is what we live today. He has put His laws inside our minds and hearts. We are changed from the inside out. We are to all know the Lord, from the least to the greatest. It began at this table, at the Last Supper. There is a lot of controversy in the church about what the elements of this supper really are and what they really mean, but the announcement that Jesus is bringing a New Covenant stands out. 

    In summary: The bread represents Jesus’ body given for all who believe. The wine illustrates Jesus’ blood shed for the New Covenant. This meal (communion) becomes an occasion to recall Jesus’ death, and the introduction of the New Covenant. 

    21  But behold, the hand of him who betrays me is with me on the table. 22  The Son of Man indeed goes, as it has been determined, but woe to that man through whom he is betrayed!” 23 They began to question among themselves, which of them it was who would do this thing. 

    Apparently Judas was sitting on one side of Jesus and John on the other. This scene was a dark one, for Jesus was probably still holding the cup that represented the blood that would soon pour from His body. He paused and said the hand of him who betrays me is with mine on the table.” If Luke is writing in chronological order, then Judas had just participated in his first (and last!) Communion. 

    Jesus was not surprised. He knew of Judas’ deadly bargain, and he knew that the Father had “decreed” the way he would be delivered over to death. Nevertheless, the numbing reality that a man with whom he had shared his life day and night, who had seen his manner of life, who had heard him bare his soul, had now become his enemy. This sickening reality bore down on Jesus. His “woe” for Judas was grief over what awaited his betrayer. They began to question who it would be, even Judas. Apparently Judas had done his job as a traitor well, because none of the other disciples seemed to suspect him. Even though God used the betrayal of Judas to bring about His plan, it does not make his actions any less evil. God is able to turn bad things around and use them to bring good, as He did here.

    I am going to stop here in the chapter and talk about the importance of communion for a few minutes. In Luke 24, Jesus walked along the road with some disciples and asked them questions, but they did not recognize Him. Then they sat down at a table together, Jesus broke bread, and their eyes were opened. Jesus said “Do this in remembrance of Me” and when they did, they instantly recognized and remembered Him. That is a powerful illustration of the importance of communion.

    The information that we have about Communion comes from the Last Supper, and the writings of Paul in 1 Corinthians. The Corinthian church was quite a mess, but very charismatic. Apparently, during the Lord’s supper, some basically pigged out, while others had nothing. Some got drunk with wine, while others had none. Paul was very upset about this and wrote a scolding letter to them. I think it is important that we cover it:

    1 Corinthians 11:17–22 (NKJV) — 17 Now in giving these instructions I do not praise you, since you come together not for the better but for the worse. 18 For first of all, when you come together as a church, I hear that there are divisions among you, and in part I believe it. 19 For there must also be factions among you, that those who are approved may be recognized among you. 20 Therefore when you come together in one place, it is not to eat the Lord’s Supper. 21 For in eating, each one takes his own supper ahead of others; and one is hungry and another is drunk. 22 What! Do you not have houses to eat and drink in? Or do you despise the church of God and shame those who have nothing? What shall I say to you? Shall I praise you in this? I do not praise you. 

    23 For I received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you: that the Lord Jesus on the same night in which He was betrayed took bread; 24 and when He had given thanks, He broke it and said, “Take, eat; this is My body which is broken for you; do this in remembrance of Me.” 25 In the same manner He also took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in My blood. This do, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of Me.” 26 For as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death till He comes. 

    27 Therefore whoever eats this bread or drinks this cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. 28 But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of the bread and drink of the cup. 29 For he who eats and drinks in an unworthy manner eats and drinks judgment to himself, not discerning the Lord’s body. 30 For this reason many are weak and sick among you, and many sleep. 

    In this letter, Paul is saying that we need to discern the body of Christ and to examine ourselves before we partake of the Lord’s supper, because if you partake of it in an unworthy manner like the Corinthians were doing, you can bring sickness and judgment on yourself. But if you simply examine yourself and your attitude towards others, then it will bring positive effects on your life. It is for those that are a part of the body of Christ. 

    So who is the body of Christ? The body of Christ is made up of believers from around the world, past, present, and future. Paul wrote in 1 Corinthians 12:14 that the body is not one member but many. An example of not discerning the Lord’s body would be not recognizing that a Christian could be a democrat, or a republican, or neither. Another is one denomination trying to exile another from the body because they don’t believe like they do. Also please note that Paul says “unworthy manner,” and not “unworthy person.” It is God that makes us worthy, not ourselves.

    What was Paul upset over? The world is too often divided by race, political views, social classes, wealth, age groups. We tend to alienate people as “the other” because they are not like us. Not so in the body of Christ. We are all equals. Jesus who is at the top, washed the disciples feet as if He were a servant at the bottom. The body of Christ is not to be divided like the world is. The blood of Jesus removes every barrier: social, economic, racial, class, gender, age, denominations, etc.

    The beauty of the Lord’s Supper is that there is a common bread and a common cup. Jesus shared the bread and wine between them all equally, but the Church of Corinth was divided. The communion that was supposed to bring the church together in unity, was actually causing divisions among them. This is what Paul was upset about. 

    In Acts chapter 16 we can read about the members of Lydia’s house church. There were three converts in this chapter from different races. Lydia was Asian, the slave girl was probably Greek, and the jailor was Roman. They also came from different economic classes: Lydia was wealthy, the slave girl was poor, and the jailor was from the working class. Yet they were all brothers and sisters in Christ just as Jesus intended. 

    That concludes our Bible study on the first part of Luke Chapter 22. Please continue reading to view part two of this chapter and the full quiz for both.


    Part Two of Luke Chapter 22 


    Bible Study, Luke 22, Part 2 from Refreshing Hope Ministries on Vimeo.

    Transcript: Today we are going to continue our Bible study and we will be studying the second half of Luke Chapter 22 in depth. You can follow along in your own Bible if you like. I will be reading from the World English Bible because it is the only modern English translation that is copyright free. 

    After the meeting today, or sometime this week, please take the matching quiz that I have prepared for you on the website. Thanks to everyone that has participated so far. Let’s get started:

    Jesus and the disciples begin in the Upper Room at the last supper. They were heading into the final hours of His life, right before His betrayal, arrest, and crucifixion.

    Luke Chapter 22 beginning in verse 24, reading from the World English Bible: 

    24 A dispute also arose among them, which of them was considered to be greatest. 25 He said to them, “The kings of the nations lord it over them, and those who have authority over them are called ‘benefactors.’ 26  But not so with you. But one who is the greater among you, let him become as the younger, and one who is governing, as one who serves. 27  For who is greater, one who sits at the table, or one who serves? Isn’t it he who sits at the table? But I am among you as one who serves. 

    By this time, Jesus had poured three years of His life into these twelve apostles, and they had seen His character in almost every conceivable circumstance. It is almost frightening to think that they are still arguing about which of them was the greatest. 

    The mentality of pagan lords at the time was to domineer and practice overwhelming selfishness, while giving themselves pleasant titles like “Your Royal Benefactor” or “Your Grace”, but Jesus said, “You are not to be like that.” Instead, the greatest among you should be like the youngest, and the one who rules is to be like the one who serves. Jesus was so close to the cross, and yet his most intimate followers were so far from Him in spirit. This seems to have been a common topic among the disciples:

    Matthew 18:1 (NKJV) — At that time the disciples came to Jesus, saying, “Who then is greatest in the kingdom of heaven?”

    Matthew 20:20–21 (NKJV) — Then the mother of Zebedee’s sons came to Him with her sons, kneeling down and asking something from Him. And He said to her, “What do you wish?” She said to Him, “Grant that these two sons of mine may sit, one on Your right hand and the other on the left, in Your kingdom.”

    Mark 9:33–34 (NKJV) — Then He came to Capernaum. And when He was in the house He asked them, “What was it you disputed among yourselves on the road?” But they kept silent, for on the road they had disputed among themselves who would be the greatest.

    Luke 9:46–47 (NKJV) — Then a dispute arose among them as to which of them would be greatest. And Jesus, perceiving the thought of their heart, took a little child and set him by Him…

    John 13:3 tells us that after this, Jesus got up, wrapped a towel around Himself, and washed their feet like He was their servant. He then told them to do likewise. Pride will blind you and start you right down satan’s path, for it is the opposite of God’s path. Pride appeals to the flesh, saying “hey look at me, I’m great”, while the Holy Spirit is trying to get you to look at Jesus. 

    It is never good when you look at yourself. You will either feel that you don’t measure up, or that others don’t measure up to the amazingly gifted you. Only when our focus is on Jesus will we remain stable, spiritually healthy, and usable by God. Spiritual pride, like the disciples are displaying here, is probably the most dangerous and the most common in the church. It is the same spirit that was in the Pharisees who loved long flowing robes, the best seats in the synagogues, and made long-winded prayers, while exploiting poor widows. Knowing more only means that you are accountable for more. Knowledge is like underwear: it is great to have, but you shouldn’t show it off. 

    28  But you are those who have continued with me in my trials. 29  I confer on you a kingdom, even as my Father conferred on me, 30  that you may eat and drink at my table in my Kingdom. You will sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.”

    After Jesus spoke to them about being a servant, He encourages the Apostles and tells them that they will sit on thrones and eat and drink at His table in His kingdom. Though there will be suffering ahead, it will be so worth it, but they will have to have the heart of a servant, and not of a Lord. I can tell you from experience that if you serve others with all your heart right where you are, God will raise you up. 1 Peter 5:6 (NKJV) — “humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God, that He may exalt you in due time” 

    The twelve apostles will receive a special place in the kingdom of God. Being a servant does not mean that we are unrewarded. God’s greatest servants receive the greatest rewards. Put Jesus first. Don’t worry about positions, or titles, or who got your promotion. When they lay you off and hire someone younger and cheaper, put your trust in Him. Your livelihood does not come from your job, so let go of the fear and anxiety, and He will catch you. When you are looking to Him for your provision, you will find true happiness and contentment. 

    31 The Lord said, “Simon, Simon, behold, Satan asked to have all of you, that he might sift you as wheat, 32  but I prayed for you, that your faith wouldn’t fail. You, when once you have turned again, establish your brothers.”

    Jesus tells Peter that “satan has desired to have you.” The original Greek here means “satan has obtained you by asking.” Our Heavenly Father is supreme, and unparalleled in power; no one can snatch us from His hand. Jesus tells us that satan asked God if He could “sift Peter” and see what was really inside of him, and God allowed him to do so. We need to understand this concept: 

    Wheat was sifted through a screen to separate the good from the bad. Sifting is used as a filter to remove hidden impurities from the grain. In the same way, God uses satan as a tool to reveal impurities in our life; things that should not be there. In this case, Peter, the mighty apostle who walked on water with Jesus, was full of fear on the inside, but he had no idea that it was there. He also did not know what was going on behind the scenes in the spiritual realm, that there was a test soon coming. This is something that we need to be aware of when asking why do bad things happen to good people. This concept is shown in both the Old and the New Testament. Let’s talk a moment about a man named Job:

    Job 1:1-3 (NKJV) — 1 There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job; and that man was blameless and upright, and one who feared God and shunned evil. 2 And seven sons and three daughters were born to him. 3 Also, his possessions were seven thousand sheep, three thousand camels, five hundred yoke of oxen, five hundred female donkeys, and a very large household, so that this man was the greatest of all the people of the East.

    Job 1:6-12 (NKJV) Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan also came among them. 

    The term “Sons of God” here is referring to super beings that came from God, also called angels. They are created beings, and lucifer / satan is one of them. They apparently have to appear before God every so often, for “there was a day.”

    Job 1:7 (NKJV) And the LORD said to Satan, “From where do you come?” So Satan answered the LORD and said, “From going to and fro on the earth, and from walking back and forth on it.” 8 Then the LORD said to Satan, “Have you considered My servant Job, that there is none like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man, one who fears God and shuns evil?” 9 So Satan answered the LORD and said, “Does Job fear God for nothing? 10 Have You not made a hedge around him, around his household, and around all that he has on every side? You have blessed the work of his hands, and his possessions have increased in the land. 11 But now, stretch out Your hand and touch all that he has, and he will surely curse You to Your face!” 12 And the LORD said to Satan, “Behold, all that he has is in your power; only do not lay a hand on his person.” So Satan went out from the presence of the LORD.

    Here we see God and satan having a conversation. God was happy with Job and said that there was none like him on the earth. God had placed a “hedge of protection” around all that Job had, but satan said “touch what he has and Job will curse you to Your face.” God basically replied with “No he won’t. Give it a test, but do not lay a hand on his body.” Satan went out to make it happen, and in the natural realm, Job’s life suddenly fell apart. Job was sifted like wheat. Something to note is that satan had to get permission from God before He could touch Job. When Job passed the first test, satan returned and said:  

    Job 2:4–6 (NKJV) — “Skin for skin! Yes, all that a man has he will give for his life. 5 But stretch out Your hand now, and touch his bone and his flesh, and he will surely curse You to Your face!” 6 And the LORD said to Satan, “Behold, he is in your hand, but spare his life.”

    Getting us to curse God will always put a smile on satan’s face. An important thing to note here is that Job was living for God, a righteous man, and God protected him. If you are living for the devil, satan doesn’t need permission to cause havoc in your life because you are his child. Jesus told some pharisees that they were like their father, the devil (John 8:44).

    Another thing is that after Job’s test was over, the Lord restored everything that Job had lost with double:

    Job 42:12–13 (NKJV) — 12 Now the LORD blessed the latter days of Job more than his beginning; for he had fourteen thousand sheep, six thousand camels, one thousand yoke of oxen, and one thousand female donkeys. 13 He also had seven sons and three daughters.

    When Job was tested, he never turned against God. Instead of failing, he came out of the other side with double. Jesus told Peter in the same way: “I have prayed for you that your faith may not fail, and when you have turned again, strengthen your brothers.” As with Job, satan had to get permission from God before he could touch Peter.

    33 He said to him, “Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death!” 34 He said, “I tell you, Peter, the rooster will by no means crow today until you deny that you know me three times.”

    Peter felt pretty brave at that moment, and he sincerely meant what he said. When they came to arrest Jesus, Peter pulled out a sword and hit one of the soldiers beside the head, cutting off his ear. If angels would had been present when Peter said these words, they would have probably winced and said, “Uh… You shouldn’t have said that, at least not like you did.” Proverbs 16:18 tells us that pride comes before destruction.

    Jesus saw what was soon coming: that satan would test Peter, that Peter would fail miserably and deny that he even knew Jesus three times because of the fear within him, but all of that was OK. Jesus told Peter: when you are done and turned to Me again, strengthen your brothers. That is when all of hell strikes our life, when satan gets permission from God to sift us, and it is not pleasant. The sifting removed the fear from Peter, and he never denied knowing Jesus again, even when faced with crucifixion. Anyone can serve God when their life is perfect, but who will serve Him faithfully when intense pressure comes? The sifting simply reveals what is inside of us so that we can overcome it. 

    35 He said to them, “When I sent you out without purse, wallet, and sandals, did you lack anything?” They said, “Nothing.” 36 Then he said to them, “But now, whoever has a purse, let him take it, and likewise a wallet. Whoever has none, let him sell his cloak, and buy a sword. 37  For I tell you that this which is written must still be fulfilled in me: ‘He was counted with transgressors.’ For that which concerns me has an end.” 

    Jesus had sent the disciples out to do ministry without Him twice before and they were received with goodwill and hospitality. Now they were going to face a hostile world without Jesus, and they should be prepared. Jesus would be crucified between two thieves and condemned as a criminal. All those following Him would be considered criminals as well.   

    The reference to buying a sword here is difficult. This is not a call to arms, because it does not fit Jesus’ other teachings, and in fact radically conflicts with them. The ‘sword’ is best understood as the sword of the Spirit that we should be armed with in preparation for battle against the spiritual forces as mentioned in Ephesians 6:17.

    38 They said, “Lord, behold, here are two swords.” He said to them, “That is enough.”

    As usual, the disciples completely missed what Jesus was saying and produced two swords, ready to fight to the death for their Messiah. Jesus basically said: “Enough of that! Enough of this kind of talk” not that two swords would be enough to face what was coming. Later, when His disciples began to fight, He stopped them.

    The Last Supper closes as a disappointment. Jesus had come so eagerly to the Upper Room and had taken the Passover bread and cup and instituted the Last Supper, only to see the evening disintegrate from there. Judas left to betray Him, the other eleven fell to infighting like children in a sandbox about who was the greatest, their egos puffed up with imaginary greatness. Jesus quieted Peter’s boasting and prophesied that He would deny even knowing Him three times. The conversation ended with the disciples’ stupid response: “See, Lord, here are two swords.” Dismayed, Jesus said “That is enough” (v. 38) and they left the Upper Room and went out to pray.

    39 He came out and went, as his custom was, to the Mount of Olives. His disciples also followed him. 

    Matthew 26:30 tells us that they sung a hymn together, probably one of the Psalms, then Jesus and the disciples went out to the Mount of Olives, to the Garden of Gethsemane to pray (Mark 14:26). Yea…Jesus was a singer, and I would love to hear Him. 

    40 When he was at the place, he said to them, “Pray that you don’t enter into temptation.”

    Jesus warned the disciples to pray for He saw what was soon coming in their life. The more detailed accounts of Gethsemane in Mark and Matthew tell us that Jesus returned three times and found them sleeping. You can bet if they had known what was coming, they would have prayed much harder.

    41 He was withdrawn from them about a stone’s throw, and he knelt down and prayed, 42 saying, “Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done.”

    Up to now, Jesus has been absolutely fearless. We see this in the temptation in the wilderness at the beginning of his ministry. During those forty days face to face with Satan, Jesus remained totally unintimidated and immovable (4:1–13). At the opening of his public ministry when his hometown people attempted to kill him, he eluded them (4:29, 30). Shortly after that, Jesus silenced a screaming demoniac with “Be quiet and come out of him!” (4:33–35). The preaching of Jesus was fearless, as seen in the six scorching woes he gave to the scribes and Pharisees (11:37–54). Toward the end, he taught in the temple, and His repeated conflicts with the authorities were all done with fearless composure.

    Jesus was always in control and in full power, whether quieting a demon, calming a storm (8:22–25), or feeding a multitude (9:10–17). He fearlessly approached his own death. For example, after the Transfiguration he said to his disciples, “Listen carefully to what I am about to tell you: The Son of Man is going to be betrayed into the hands of men” (9:44). A short time later, “As the time approached for him to be taken up to heaven, Jesus resolutely set out for Jerusalem” (9:51). And just before ascending the hill to the Holy City, he said, “We are going up to Jerusalem, and everything that is written by the prophets about the Son of Man will be fulfilled. He will be handed over to the Gentiles. They will mock him, insult him, spit on him, flog him and kill him. On the third day he will rise again” (18:31–33). Finally, in the Upper Room at the last supper, he was fearless and eager to eat the Passover with his own, though he knew that He was the Passover lamb who would be devoured (22:14–16). Throughout the entire range of His exciting life, Jesus knew no fear.

    Now in Gethsemane, we see Jesus struggling, wrestling within Himself for what is coming so quickly. People usually prayed during that time in a standing position, but Jesus knelt down and began to pray so hard that He was pouring sweat. Why? Mark’s gospel records, “He began to be deeply distressed and troubled. ‘My soul is overwhelmed with sorrow to the point of death” (Mark 14:33, 34). 

    To me, the cup that Jesus was praying about was the cup of our sin, mixed with God’s wrath. Jesus would take the sin of the world onto His shoulders and the Father would turn away from Him. Jesus would bear our sin and shame: (2 Corinthians 5:21) “For our sake He made Him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in Him we might become the righteousness of God”. Jesus would be forsaken by God (Mark 15:34) because of our sin. For a time, Jesus became an enemy of God, and was judged and forced to drink the cup of the Father’s fury, so that we would not have to drink from that cup. Taking this figurative cup was the source of Jesus’ greatest agony on the cross, but above all, He wanted the Father’s will to be done.

    43 An angel from heaven appeared to him, strengthening him. 44 Being in agony he prayed more earnestly. His sweat became like great drops of blood falling down on the ground.

    We must remind ourselves that this is a real prayer, by a real man, in great distress. Matthew 26:44 tells us that Jesus went back and prayed the same words three times, and the Father who would do anything for His Son, did not spare Jesus from what was coming. Instead, He sent an angel to strengthen Him. Jesus’ sweat became like great drops of blood flowing from a wound. The Greek wording of Luke 22:44 is clear: Luke is not saying that Jesus’ sweat was blood, but that it was like blood, either in the way that it poured off His brow, or because it was tinged with blood. It is said that in times of intense mental pressure, the pores of the skin can open up so large that blood can begin to seep through them, so it is entirely possible that was blood mixed with sweat.

    45 When he rose up from his prayer, he came to the disciples, and found them sleeping because of grief, 46 and said to them, “Why do you sleep? Rise and pray that you may not enter into temptation.”

    Jesus prayed until He had peace about what was coming. The disciples were discouraged for it has been quite a night, and they had just eaten a big meal: the Passover feast. They probably had prayed for a few minutes at the beginning and then gradually fell a sleep as Jesus continued on. They did not understand how serious this night was, but they were about to wake up. 

    47 While he was still speaking, behold, a multitude, and he who was called Judas, one of the twelve, was leading them. He came near to Jesus to kiss him. 48 But Jesus said to him, “Judas, do you betray the Son of Man with a kiss?”

    While Jesus spoke to the disciples, the “Apostle Judas Iscariot”, one of the twelve that He had chosen, came leading a crowd and went to kiss Jesus. A kiss on the cheek was not uncommon in those days when men met, but it usually referred to friendship, esteem, and love. Judas choosing this method to signal out Jesus to the soldiers was particularly gruesome: it was the kiss from hell. Matthew and Mark both describe the kiss with Mark saying: “Going at once to Jesus, Judas said, ‘Rabbi!’ and kissed him” (Mark 14:45; Matthew 26:49). Luke deliberately does not give the details, since for him the event is apparently too monstrous to describe. 

    49 When those who were around him saw what was about to happen, they said to him, “Lord, shall we strike with the sword?” 50 A certain one of them struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear.

    The spiritually-dull disciples still had their two swords among them, and as we might have guessed, one of them was in Peter’s possession (John 18:10). Peter was the one who had boasted earlier in the evening, “Lord, I am ready to go with you to prison and to death” (v. 33), and he was serious about it. Apparently Peter was asking the question while swinging the sword. Before Jesus could answer, with poor aim but great determination, Peter whacked off the right ear of one of the high priest’s servants.

    Peter’s move was pure stupidity. He was playing perfectly into the hands of the temple mob. Thanks to Peter’s impulsive violence, the authorities could now claim they had received an anonymous tip that Jesus and his armed followers were preparing for a rebellion, and when challenged, Jesus’ gang had attacked the authorities. Most of them had been killed, and the rest were on the run. And Jesus? Oh, He was just a political subversive. Good job, Peter! Five stars for that one… 

    Our human nature, when unprepared by prayer will always get us into trouble. There is also another lesson here: whenever the church has taken up the sword, it has always demonstrated that it does not know how to wield it, and it strikes the wrong people. During the Dark Ages, the church put hundreds of thousands of people to death for simple things like believing the earth was round, translating the Bible into English, or just believing differently. People that did not agree with them were called witches, heretics, and were tortured and killed, often by burning at the stake. The sword is rightfully within the power of the state, and not in the church (Romans 13:1–7; 1 Peter 2:13, 14). 

    The separation of church and state laws in the United States were written for our protection, to protect the people from churches that were exterminating people in the name of Jesus Christ. Freedom of religion is one of the main reasons the pilgrims came here. Let us never forget that. The world does not need a church with military power, or a state-run church. If you see one rise up, you can be assured that it is satan at the helm and not Jesus, and that it will be used to persecute the true church, usually in the name of Jesus. 

    51 But Jesus answered, “Let me at least do this”—and he touched his ear, and healed him. 

    Jesus called out: “No more of this!” and stopped the fighting. He then reached out, touched the man’s ear and healed him.” This was a breathtaking display of power. The man’s right ear had just been severed, cut clean off according to John 18:10. Now it was whole. John tells us the servant was named Malchus. 

    52 Jesus said to the chief priests, captains of the temple, and elders, who had come against him, “Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs? 53  When I was with you in the temple daily, you didn’t stretch out your hands against me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness.”

    In John 18:4 Jesus asked them “Whom are you seeking?” and they said “Jesus of Nazareth.” Jesus said “I Am He” and they all fell to the ground. “I AM” is the name that God used at the burning bush when He spoke with Moses in Exodus 3:14. 

    54 They seized him, and led him away, and brought him into the high priest’s house. But Peter followed from a distance. 

    The chief priests, officers of the temple, and the elders had came out against Jesus in the dark of night, led by one of His own Apostles, Judas Iscariot. They arrested Jesus and took Him to the house of the high priest. It was he who had Jesus arrested, not the Romans, and he had Jesus brought to his house. God’s high priest, arrested the Son of God and plotted how to kill Him, just as in the parable of the vine keepers. 

    55 When they had kindled a fire in the middle of the courtyard, and had sat down together, Peter sat among them. 

    John 18:15 tells us that another disciple who knew the high priest’s father-in-law, Annas, brought Peter inside the courtyard. They crept in quietly and sat down among the people there, trying to keep a low profile. All four gospels tell us that the first person to recognize Peter was a slave girl. John adds that she was the door keeper. She stared at Peter and said “This man was also with Him!” 

    56 A certain servant girl saw him as he sat in the light, and looking intently at him, said, “This man also was with him.” 57 He denied Jesus, saying, “Woman, I don’t know him.”

    There were no charges against the disciples of Jesus, so Peter could have just said: “Yea”, but he was sitting among enemies, so he cowered and answered “I do not know Him.” Mark 14:68 tells us that soon a rooster crowed.

    58 After a little while someone else saw him, and said, “You also are one of them!” But Peter answered, “Man, I am not!”

    A little while later a man recognized Peter, and that he had been with Jesus. Peter’s response was, “Man, I am not” and Peter denied Jesus a second time. 

    59 After about one hour passed, another confidently affirmed, saying, “Truly this man also was with him, for he is a Galilean!”

    John 18:26 tells us that this man was a relative of Malchus, the man whose ear Peter had cut off, and he said: “Didn’t I see you in the garden with him?” and Peter denied knowing Jesus a third time. Mark 14:71 tells us that Peter began to call down curses on himself, and he swore to them, ‘I don’t know this man you’re talking about!’ Immediately the rooster crowed again, and at that moment they were leading Jesus through the courtyard. 

    60 But Peter said, “Man, I don’t know what you are talking about!” Immediately, while he was still speaking, a rooster crowed. 61 The Lord turned and looked at Peter. Then Peter remembered the Lord’s word, how he said to him, “Before the rooster crows you will deny me three times.” 62 He went out, and wept bitterly.

    Just as Peter was speaking for the third time, the rooster crowed a second time. The Lord Jesus turned and looked straight at Peter, and Peter remembered the words that He had spoken: “Before the rooster crows twice, you will disown Me three times.” Peter went outside and wept bitterly.

    No one will ever know the anguish that Peter went through during the next few hours and days, but something died inside Peter that night, Simon (Peter’s original name), the natural man with all his self-assured presumption, began to become Peter, the one who’s shadow would heal people when he walked past them (Acts 5:15).

    63 The men who held Jesus mocked him and beat him. 64 Having blindfolded him, they struck him on the face and asked him, “Prophesy! Who is the one who struck you?” 65 They spoke many other things against him, insulting him.

    They had dragged Jesus to the house of Caiaphas, the high priest. Caiaphas’ house must have been located in the Upper City of Jerusalem. Recent excavations have uncovered several large, palace-sized houses there that belonged to wealthy Jews from that period. These houses contain several ritual baths that were used in Jewish purification rites and would have been appropriate for a priest. 

    The facts are though, that Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 AD, its citizens scattered. Both Jews and Christians were persecuted throughout the empire, and the exact location of the sacred Christian places were not easy to find. Most of the houses were looted and burnt, and according to the historian Josephus, the city of Jerusalem was left unrecognizable. Even if anyone returning to the city after its destruction knew exactly where the palace of Caiaphas was, it would have been nearly impossible to find it.

    It is now late Thursday night / beginning of Friday, and the men who held Jesus seem completely uninterested in whether He was innocent, but more concerned with getting even with Him. Obviously the demons in them were having a blast. They blindfolded Jesus and beat Him, asking Him to prophecy who hit Him. They mocked and insulted Him. Nothing here resembles a trial, but more of a torturous mob, which happened to include the high priest. 

    The details of the trial of Jesus is not easy to piece together, but it began on late Thursday night and went through Friday morning. None of the gospels cover the entire account, so all four have to be gone through. That said, there were two main stages: first there was a Jewish trial where the chief priests condemned Jesus for breaking their law. Afterwards, there was a Roman trial where the Jews tried to convince Pilate, the Roman ruler who was in charge there, to crucify Jesus. 

    They rushed Jesus through a hasty trial at night before the common people could learn of it. The Jewish trial itself had two or three stages. Jesus first appeared before Annas, then Caiaphas, and others. After daybreak on Friday came a formal meeting of the Sanhedrin, the “court of justice” in Jerusalem, which was probably an attempt to cover all this up and make the trials by night look legitimate (Matthew 27:1; Mark 15:1). 

    Jewish law prohibited a capital trial to be done at night, or even a verdict to be given at night, but these people were in a hurry and they brushed all their laws aside so they could quickly and quietly sentence Jesus while the people slept. There was no jail or time to make a legal defense. They immediately sought the death penalty the same night that Jesus was arrested, and within a few hours had carried it out. It was a dirty coverup, and so important to them that they literally stayed up all night long to make it happen, dragging Jesus from one place to another. As soon it was day, they began a mock trial that had already been decided long before. It was the highly religious elders and priests who pushed it through, the holy-looking ones with the long flowing robes and the long prayers, whom Jesus had spoken about. 

    66 As soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people were gathered together, both chief priests and scribes, and they led him away into their council, saying, 67 “If you are the Christ, tell us.” But he said to them, “If I tell you, you won’t believe, 68  and if I ask, you will in no way answer me or let me go. 69  From now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God.”

    This would have been daybreak on Friday morning. Instead of calling witnesses, they asked Jesus to incriminate Himself by claiming to be the Son of God. They wanted to gather anything that they could use against Him.

    70 They all said, “Are you then the Son of God?” He said to them, “You say it, because I am.” 71 They said, “Why do we need any more witness? For we ourselves have heard from his own mouth!” 

    Jesus had asked them many questions before and they would not reply to Him (Luke 20:3, 41) so He told them “If I tell you, you will not believe, and if I ask you, you will not answer. But from now on the Son of Man shall be seated at the right hand of the power of God.” The religious leaders felt they had gathered enough words to shore up their false charges, and they now carried Jesus to the Roman overseer, Pilate. We will continue in Luke chapter 23.  

    That concludes our Bible study on Luke Chapter 22. Thank you for watching and being a part of Refreshing Hope! 

     Click here to take the Quiz on Luke Chapter 22, or scroll down for the text version!

     Quiz Questions on Luke 22:

    1. Now the feast of unleavened bread, which is called the _____, was approaching.
    2. The chief _____ and the scribes sought how they might put Jesus to death, for they feared the people. 
    3. satan entered into _____, who was also called Iscariot, who was counted with the twelve. He went away, and talked with the chief priests and captains about how he might deliver Jesus to them. 
    4. The day of unleavened bread came, on which the Passover must be sacrificed. Jesus sent _____ and _____, saying, “Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat.”
    5. They said to Jesus, “Where do you want us to prepare?” He said to them, “Behold, when you have entered into the city, a man carrying a _____ of water will meet you.
    6. Jesus told them: Tell the master of the house, The Teacher says to you, Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my _____? He will show you a large, furnished upper room. Make preparations there.
    7. When the hour had come, Jesus sat down with the twelve apostles. He said to them, “I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer, for I tell you, I will no longer by any means eat of it until it is fulfilled in God’s _____.
    8. Jesus received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, “Take this, and share it among yourselves, for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the _____, until God’s Kingdom comes.”
    9. Jesus took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke, and gave it to them, saying, “This is my _____ which is given for you. Do this in memory of me.” 
    10. Likewise, Jesus took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the _____ _____ in my blood, which is poured out for you.”
    11. A dispute arose among the disciples about which of them was considered to be _____.
    12. Jesus said: “Simon, Simon, behold, satan asked to have all of you, that he might sift you as _____, but I prayed for you, that your faith wouldn’t fail. You, when once you have turned again, establish your brothers.”
    13. Peter said: “Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death!” Then Jesus said, “I tell you, Peter, the rooster will by no means crow today until you deny that you know me _____ times.”
    14. Jesus said to them, “When I sent you out without purse, wallet, and _____, did you lack anything?” They said, “Nothing.”
    15. Jesus and the disciples came out and went, as His custom was, to __________ to pray. 
    16. As Jesus prayed, an angel from heaven appeared to Him, strengthening Him. Being in agony he prayed more earnestly. His sweat became like great drops of _____ falling down on the ground.
    17. While Jesus was speaking to His disciples, behold, a multitude, and he who was called _____, one of the twelve, was leading them. He came near to Jesus to kiss him. But Jesus said to him, “_____, do you betray the Son of Man with a kiss?”
    18. When those who were around Jesus saw what was about to happen, they said to Him, “Lord, shall we strike with the sword?” A certain one of them struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his _____.
    19. Jesus said to the chief _____, captains of the temple, and elders, who had come against him, “Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs? When I was with you in the temple daily, you didn’t stretch out your hands against me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness.”
    20. While Peter was in the courtyard of the high priest, another confidently affirmed that he was with Jesus, saying, “Truly this man also was with him, for he is a _____!”

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3 comments
  • 1
Barbara Neahring
Barbara Neahring

Thank you! 

Feb 18
  • 1
Deng Tembreza
Deng Tembreza

Thank you Pastor

 

Feb 20
  • 1
Barbara Neahring
Barbara Neahring

I appreciate your down-to-earth teaching.  Thank you! 

Feb 25